Bustamante C, Brevis F, Canales S, Millón S, Pascual R Effect of functional electrical stimulation on the proprioception, motor function of the paretic upper limb, and patient quality of life: A case report.

J Hand Ther. 2016 Sep 21. pii: S0894-1130(16)30122-3.

Resumen
SUMMARY:Functional electrical stimulation (FES) has shown to improve motor function of the affected side in stroke patients; however, the effects of FES on proprioception, the functional recovery of the paretic upper limb, and the patient quality of life (QoL) are not clear. The aim of the current case report was to determine whether FES can improve joint position sense and the scores on measurements of upper limb function and a QoL survey. The participant was assessed before and after 10 consecutive intervention sessions; in addition, the patient performed the training tasks in the workstation assisted by the FES device. Improvements in angles and time only in the affected wrist and enhancement in the Action Research Arm Test scores for both upper limbs were found after FES intervention. In addition, the patient’s health-related QoL measurements improved. FES could ameliorate the proprioceptive deficit and the activity limitations of a stroke survivor.

 

Lizana PA, López R, Albala C. Effect of Summer Holidays on Anthropometric Measures and Body Composition of Older Adults, Inadequacy of Body Mass Index to Detect Changes During a Critical Period: A Pilot Study

Int J Morphol. 2016; 34(2):557-560.(In Press)

Resumen
SUMMARY: Obesity is a major health problem worldwide. Obesity prevalence in Chilean older adults (OA) is increasing, associated with several negative health outcomes. Therefore, determining critical periods of adiposity increase is relevant in OA. The aim of the study was to assess body composition changes in OA during summer holidays. This observational study involved two test visits, without a control group. Twelve OA (9 females) with an average age of 71.92±6.97 years participated in an initial evaluation (E1) and final evaluation (E2) at the beginning and at the end of the summer in 2015. Weight, height, and body mass index (BMI) were assessed; fat-free mass (FFM), fat mass (FM), and muscular mass (MM) data were collected through foot-to-foot bioimpedance analysis. No significant variations were reported in weight and BMI between E1 and E2. This prevalence was maintained between E1 and E2. The FM significantly increased between E1 (27.63±10.91) and E2 (28.64±11.39) (p= 0.007), while the FFM significantly decreased between E1 (45.38±5.89) and E2 (44.33±5.36) (P= 0.006), also the MM between E1 (43.08±5.62) and E2 (42.07±5.10). Both, weight and BMI are insufficient measures for detecting changes during this critical summer holiday period. However, the body composition measures identified significant changes in the OA during the study.

 

Lisseth Barra C., Paola Fernández P. , Felipe Granada G., Paula Ávila C., Javier Mallea M., Yeniffer Rodríguez M. Smoking among undergraduate university students

Rev Med Chile 2015; 143: 1343-1350

Resumen
 Background: Smoking is one of the major Public Health problems worldwide. Aim: To study the frequency of tobacco smoking among undergraduate students of a Chilean university. Material and Methods: An opinion survey was sent by e-mail to all undergraduate students of a university, registering gender, age, study years, study area, smoking behavior, motivation (reason for smoking), intention to quit and tobacco law perception. Results: 1,008 (57% females) out of 11,679 surveys were answered back. Prevalence of active smoking among respondents was 36%, without association with gender, age or years of study. However, students from scientific areas had a lower prevalence. Seventy seven percent of smokers manifested the intention to quit the habit or have started quitting already. Ninety six percent were acquainted with the tobacco law and by 73% agreed with it. Conclusions: Smoking is highly prevalent among university students. It is necessary to develop strategies for smoking cessation within universities that may prevent or reduce tobacco smoking among students.

 

Pascual R, Valencia M, Bustamante C
Antenatal betamethasone produces protracted changes in anxiety-like behaviors and in the expression of microtubule-associated protein 2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the tyrosine kinase B receptor in the rat cerebellar cortex.

Int J Dev Neurosci. 2015 Jun;43:78-85.

Resumen
 Using classic Golgi staining methods, we previously showed that the administration of synthetic glucocorticoid betamethasone in equivalent doses to those given in cases of human premature birth generates long-term alterations in Purkinje cell dendritic development in the cerebellar cortex. In the present study, we evaluated whether betamethasone alters the immunohistochemical expression of proteins that participate in cerebellar Purkinje cell dendritic development and maintenance, including microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the tyrosine kinase B receptor (TrkB), which are located predominantly in the cerebellar molecular layer where Purkinje cell dendritogenesis occurs. Consistent with our previous Golgi stain studies, we observed that animals prenatally exposed to a single course of betamethasone showed long-term alterations in the expression of MAP2, BDNF and TrkB. Additionally, these protracted molecular changes were accompanied by anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze and marble burying tests.

 

Pascual R, Valencia M, Bustamante C
Antenatal betamethasone produces protracted changes in anxiety-like behaviors and in the expression of microtubule-associated protein 2, brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the tyrosine kinase B receptor in the rat cerebellar cortex.

Int J Dev Neurosci. 2015 Jun;43:78-85.

Resumen
 Using classic Golgi staining methods, we previously showed that the administration of synthetic glucocorticoid betamethasone in equivalent doses to those given in cases of human premature birth generates long-term alterations in Purkinje cell dendritic development in the cerebellar cortex. In the present study, we evaluated whether betamethasone alters the immunohistochemical expression of proteins that participate in cerebellar Purkinje cell dendritic development and maintenance, including microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2), brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and the tyrosine kinase B receptor (TrkB), which are located predominantly in the cerebellar molecular layer where Purkinje cell dendritogenesis occurs. Consistent with our previous Golgi stain studies, we observed that animals prenatally exposed to a single course of betamethasone showed long-term alterations in the expression of MAP2, BDNF and TrkB. Additionally, these protracted molecular changes were accompanied by anxiety-like behaviors in the elevated plus maze and marble burying tests.

 

 Pascual R, Valencia M, Larrea S, Bustamante C.

Single course of antenatal betamethasone produces delayed changes in morphology and calbindin-D28k expression in a rat’s cerebellar Purkinje cells.

Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2014;74(4):415-23.

Resumen
In the current study, we analyzed the impact of antenatal betamethasone on macroscopic cerebellar development, Purkinje cell morphology and the expression of the neuroprotective protein calbindin-D28k. Pregnant rats (Sprague-Dawley) were randomly divided into two experimental groups: control (CONT) and betamethasone-treated (BET). At gestational day 20 (G20), BET dams were subcutaneously injected with a solution of 0.17 mg kg⁻¹ of betamethasone, while CONT animals received a similar volume of saline. At postnatal days 22 (P22) and P52, BET and CONT offspring were behaviorally evaluated, and the cerebella were histologically and immunohistochemically processed. Animals that were prenatally treated with a single course of betamethasone exhibited long-lasting behavioral changes consistent with anxiety-like behavior in the open-field test, together with (1) reduced cerebellar weight and volume, (2) Purkinje cell dendritic atrophy, and (3) an overexpression of calbindin-D28k. The current results indicate that an experimental single course of betamethasone in pregnant rats produces long-lasting anxiety-like behaviors, together with macroscopic and microscopic cerebellar alterations.

 

Pascual R, Valencia M, Bustamante C.

Purkinje cell dendritic atrophy induced by prenatal stress is mitigated by early environmental enrichment.

Neuropediatrics. 2015 Feb;46(1):37-43.

Resumen
BACKGROUND:Prenatal stress (PS) in experimental animals causes long-lasting changes in Purkinje cell dendritic morphology. Furthermore, these structural changes are associated with an increase in anxiogenic behaviors in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open-field (OF) test
OBJECTIVES: As environmental enrichment (EE) has significant restorative effects on brain neurons and behavior, the aim of this study was to evaluate if postweaning EE mitigates the decrease in Purkinje cell dendritic expansion and exploratory behavior induced by PS in mice.
MATERIALS AND METHODS: Restraint stress was induced from gestational day 14 (G14) to G21. Approximately 50% of the PS animals were submitted to the EE paradigm between postnatal days 22 (P22) and P52. At P52 and P82, male animals were behaviorally evaluated, and then the morphology of the cerebellar vermal Purkinje cells was analyzed.
RESULTS: We found that EE significantly ameliorates the Purkinje cell dendritic atrophy and anxiety-like behavior in the EPM.
CONCLUSION: Our data show that long-lasting Purkinje cell dendritic impairments and anxiety-like behavior can be mitigated by postweaning EE.

 

Bustamante C, Valencia M, Torres C, González MJ, Carvajal C, Sandoval D, Gutiérrez-Rojas C, Pascual R.

Effects of a single course of prenatal betamethasone on dendritic development in dentate gyrus granular neurons and on spatial memory in rat offspring.

Neuropediatrics. 2014 Dec;45(6):354-61.

Resumen
BACKGROUND: Preterm babies treated with synthetic glucocorticoids (sGC) in utero exhibit behavioral alterations and disturbances in brain maturation during infancy. However, the effects on dentate granule cell morphology and spatial memory in rats that were given clinically equivalent doses of antenatal betamethasone remain unclear.
METHODS: Pregnant rats were randomly divided into the following two experimental groups: control (CON) and betamethasone-treated (BET) groups. At gestational day 20 (G20), BET dams were subcutaneously injected with a 0.17 mg/kg betamethasone solution, and CON animals received a similar volume of saline. At postnatal days 22 (P22) and P52, BET and CON offsprings were behaviorally evaluated in the Y-Maze test, and the dentate gyrus granular neurons were histologically analyzed.
RESULTS: Animals prenatally treated with a single course of betamethasone exhibit a significant decrement in the dendritic outgrowth of dentate granule cells along with impaired spatial memory when evaluated at P52. Moreover, the body and brain weight of the BET group was significantly lower than the CON group at P0, P22, and P52.
CONCLUSION: The current results indicate that a single course of betamethasone in pregnant rats produces significant neuronal and behavioral impairments of the offspring at adolescence along with a decrement in somatic and brain weights at each of the three ages evaluated.

 

Pascual R, Bustamante C.

Early postweaning social isolation but not environmental enrichment modifies vermal Purkinje cell dendritic outgrowth in rats.

 Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2013;73(3):387-93.

Abstract
In the present study, we analyzed the effects of enriched, social and isolated experiences on vermal Purkinje cell of the rat, together with anxiety-like behavior in the elevated-plus maze. Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly submitted to either enriched, social, or isolated environments during the early postweaning period (postnatal days 22-32) and were then behaviorally evaluated in the elevated-plus maze and euthanized for histological analysis. Vermal Purkinje cells (sub-lobules VIa and VIb) were sampled, drawn under camera lucida and morphometrically assessed using the Sholl’s concentric ring method. Data obtained indicate that environmental enrichment did not significantly modify the Purkinje cell dendritic branching. On the contrary, Purkinje cell of animals reared in social isolation exhibited a significant reduction in dendritic arborization, which was closely associated with anxiety-like behaviors. The data obtained indicate that, although environmental stimulation in normal animals does not produce significant changes in vermal Purkinje cell dendritic arborization, these cells are vulnerable to early stressful experiences, which is in close association with anxiety-like behaviors.

 

Gutiérrez-Rojas C, Pascual R, Bustamante C. Prenatal stress alters the behavior and dendritic morphology of the medial orbitofrontal cortex in mouse offspring during lactation.

Int J Dev Neurosci. 2013 Nov;31(7):505-11.

Resumen
Several preclinical and clinical studies have shown that prenatal stress alters neuronal dendritic development in the prefrontal cortex, together with behavioral disturbances (anxiety). Nevertheless, neither whether these alterations are present during the lactation period, nor whether such findings may reflect the onset of anxiety disorders observed in childhood and adulthood has been studied. The central aim of the present study was to determine the effects of prenatal stress on the neuronal development and behavior of mice offspring during lactation (postnatal days 14 and 21). We studied 24 CF-1 male mice, grouped as follows: (i) control P14 (n=6), (ii) stressed P14 (n=6), (iii) control P21 (n=6) and (iv) stressed P21 (n=6). On the corresponding days, animals were evaluated with the open field test and sacrificed. Their brains were then stained in Golgi-Cox solution for 30 days. The morphological analysis dealt with the study of 96 pyramidal neurons. The results showed, first, that prenatal stress resulted in a significant (i) decrease in the apical dendritic length of pyramidal neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex at postnatal day 14, (ii) increase in the apical dendritic length of pyramidal neurons in the orbitofrontal cortex at postnatal day 21, and (iii) reduction in exploratory behavior at postnatal day 14 and 21.

 

 Bustamante C, Henríquez R, Medina F, Reinoso C, Vargas R, Pascual R. Maternal exercise during pregnancy ameliorates the postnatal neuronal impairments induced by prenatal restraint stress in mice.

Int J Dev Neurosci. 2013 Jun;31(4):267-73.

Resumen
 Clinical and preclinical studies have demonstrated that prenatal stress (PS) induces neuronal and behavioral disturbances in the offspring. In the present study, we determined whether maternal voluntary wheel running (VWR) during pregnancy could reverse the putative deleterious effects of PS on the neurodevelopment and behavior of the offspring. Pregnant CF-1 mice were randomly assigned to control, restraint stressed or restraint stressed+VWR groups. Dams of the stressed group were subjected to restraint stress between gestational days 14 and delivery, while control pregnant dams remained undisturbed in their home cages. Dams of the restraint stressed+VWR group were subjected to exercise between gestational days 1 and 17. On postnatal day 23 (P23), male pups were assigned to one of the following experimental groups: mice born from control dams, stressed dams or stressed+VWR dams. Locomotor behavior and pyramidal neuronal morphology were evaluated at P23. Animals were then sacrificed, and Golgi-impregnated pyramidal neurons of the parietal cortex were morphometrically analyzed. Here, we present two major findings: first, PS produced significantly diminished dendritic growth of parietal neurons without altered locomotor behavior of the offspring; and second, maternal VWR significantly offset morphological impairments.

 

 Pascual R, Zamora-León P, Bustamante C.

Selegiline (deprenyl) decreases calbindin-D28k expression in cortical neurons of rats socially deprived during the post-weaning period.

Int J Dev Neurosci. 2013 Apr;31(2):145-9.

Resumen
Preclinical studies indicate that selegiline (deprenyl), frequently used in some neurodegenerative diseases, exert protective effects on central nervous system neurons of individuals exposed to social isolation (SI). Furthermore, it has been suggested that SI produces neuronal dysfunction due in part to an excessive intracellular Ca(2+) overload. Since the main intracellular Ca(2+) buffering mechanism involves changes in the calcium-binding protein calbindin-D28k (CB), and that CB neuronal expression can increase in response to Ca(2+) transients, we hypothesized that chronic selegiline administration in early socially isolated animals could minimize cell CB expression as an indirect indicator of protective mechanism against Ca(2+) overload. In the present study male rats were weaned at postnatal day 21 (P21) and randomly assigned to social deprivation (SI) or control (SC) environments for 30 days (P21-51). SI animals were further subdivided in two experimental groups: socially deprived-saline (SI-SAL) and socially isolated-selegiline (SI-SEL) for additional 30 days (P52-82). Medial frontal CB immunoreactivity (CB-ir) neurons were quantitatively and qualitatively analyzed. The results obtained indicate that neocortical cells of adult rats submitted to early SI show a significant increase in the number of CB-ir neurons per cortical field, while selegiline treatment significantly reduces this parameter.

 

Renier L, Cuevas I, Grandin CB, Dricot L, Plaza P, Lerens E, Rombaux P, De Volder AG. Right occipital cortex activation correlates with superior odor processing performance in the early blind.

PLoS One. 2013 Aug 14;8(8):e71907.

Resumen
 Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in ten early blind humans, we found robust occipital activation during two odor-processing tasks (discrimination or categorization of fruit and flower odors), as well as during control auditory-verbal conditions (discrimination or categorization of fruit and flower names). We also found evidence for reorganization and specialization of the ventral part of the occipital cortex, with dissociation according to stimulus modality: the right fusiform gyrus was most activated during olfactory conditions while part of the left ventral lateral occipital complex showed a preference for auditory-verbal processing. Only little occipital activation was found in sighted subjects, but the same right-olfactory/left-auditory-verbal hemispheric lateralization was found overall in their brain. This difference between the groups was mirrored by superior performance of the blind in various odor-processing tasks. Moreover, the level of right fusiform gyrus activation during the olfactory conditions was highly correlated with individual scores in a variety of odor recognition tests, indicating that the additional occipital activation may play a functional role in odor processing.

 

 Pascual R, Bustamante C. Structural neuroplasticity induced by melatonin in entorhinal neurons of rats exposed to toluene inhalation.

Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2011;71(4):541-7.

Resumen
 Several clinical studies have shown that abusing volatile solvents, mainly toluene, produces neurological, neuropathological and neuropsychiatric disorders. Symptoms of these disorders include loss in impulse control, distractibility and memory deficits, which are associated with mild brain atrophy. The entorhinal cortex is critically involved in mnemonic processes, and memory disorders are the major symptom detected in chronic solvent abusers. Therefore, in the present study, we evaluated (1) whether the entorhinal neuronal morphology was impaired by subchronic toluene exposure and (2) if melatonin protected the neuronal cytoarchitecture, as has been demonstrated in neocortical neurons. Consistent with our previous findings, the present study indicates that the entorhinal cell dendritic arborization was significantly reduced in toluene exposed animals, and melatonin administration significantly rescued the reduced dendritic branching induced by toluene neurotoxicity.

 

Pascual R, Bustamante C.
Melatonin promotes distal dendritic ramifications in layer II/III cortical pyramidal cells of rats exposed to toluene vapors.
Brain Res. 2010 Oct 8;1355:214-20.
Resumen
 We have previously shown that toluene inhalation produces significant impairments in the basilar dendritic outgrowth of pyramidal cortical cells. This neurotoxic effect was markedly inhibited by melatonin administration at a dose of 5mg kg(-1). The present study was designed to determine whether toluene and melatonin equally affect all basilar dendritic segments or if a differential response exists between the segments. Twenty-eight male mice were weaned at postnatal day 21 (P21) and randomly assigned to either the control (C; n=10,) or toluene (T; n=18) group. Between P22-P32, male rats were placed into a glass chamber and exposed to either toluene vapors (5-000-6000 ppm) or clean air for 10 min a day. When toluene exposure ended (P32), animals were further assigned to the following experimental groups: (a) control/saline (C/S; n=10), (b) toluene/saline (T/S; n=10), or (c) toluene/melatonin 5mg kg(-1) (T/M; n=8). Melatonin or vehicle solutions were administered daily between P32 and P38. Forty-eight hours after the final toluene exposure, the animals were sacrificed, and the pyramidal cortical cells were stained using the Golgi-Cox-Sholl procedure. The number of basilar dendritic branches/order was counted using the centrifugal ordering method. The results indicate that (i) toluene inhalation significantly impairs both proximal and distal basilar dendritic ramifications (in the parietal and frontal/occipital cortices, respectively) and (ii) melatonin both protects neurons from toluene neurotoxicity in all cortical areas studied and increases the complexity of the dendritic tree above control values.

 

Pascual R, Ebner D, Araneda R, Urqueta MJ, Bustamante C. Maternal stress induces long-lasting Purkinje cell developmental impairments in mouse offspring.

Eur J Pediatr. 2010 Dec;169(12):1517-22.

Resumen
 A number of clinical studies suggest that prenatal stress can be a risk factor in the development of various psychopathologies, including schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, and autism. The cerebellar vermis has been shown to be involved in most of these disorders. In the present study, therefore, we evaluate the effect of maternal stress on long-term alterations in vermal Purkinje cell morphology. Furthermore, to discern whether these structural changes are associated with anxious behavior, the exploratory drive in the elevated plus maze was evaluated. Pregnant CF-1 mice were randomly assigned to control (n = 14) or stressed (n = 16) groups. Dams of the stressed group were subjected to restraint stress between gestational days 14 and 20, while control pregnant dams remained undisturbed in their home cages. Anxious behavior and Purkinje cell morphology were evaluated in three ontogenetic stages: postweaning, adolescence, and adulthood. Although exploratory behavior in the elevated plus maze was unaffected by prenatal stress, the Purkinje cell morphology showed a transient period of abnormal growth (at postweaning and juvenile stages) followed by dramatic dendritic atrophy in adulthood. In conclusion, prenatal stress induced significant long-lasting bimodal changes in the morphology of vermal Purkinje cells. These structural alterations, however, were not accompanied by anxious behaviors in the elevated plus maze.

 

Bustamante C, Bilbao P, Contreras W, Martínez M, Mendoza A, Reyes A, Pascual R. Effects of prenatal stress and exercise on dentate granule cells maturation and spatial memory in adolescent mice.

Int J Dev Neurosci. 2010 Nov;28(7):605-9.

Resumen
 Exposure to prenatal stress (PS) increases the risk of developing neurobehavioral disturbances later in life. Previous work has shown that exercise can exert beneficial effects on brain damage; however, it is unknown whether voluntary wheel running (VWR) can ameliorate the neurobehavioral impairments induced by PS in adolescent offspring. Pregnant CF-1 mice were randomly assigned to control (n=5) or stressed (n=5) groups. Pregnant dams were subjected to restraint stress between gestational days 14 and 21 (G14-21), whereas controls remained undisturbed in their home cages. On postnatal day 21 (P21), male pups were randomly assigned to the following experimental groups: control (n=5), stressed (n=5), and stressed mice+daily submitted to VWR (n=4). At P52, all groups were behaviorally evaluated in the Morris water maze. Animals were then sacrificed, and Golgi-impregnated granule cells were morphometrically analyzed. The results indicate that PS produced significant behavioral and neuronal impairments in adolescent offspring and that VWR significantly offset these deleterious effects.

 

 Pascual R, Aedo L, Meneses JC, Vergara D, Reyes A, Bustamante C. Solvent inhalation (toluene and n-hexane) during the brain growth spurt impairs the maturation of frontal, parietal and occipital cerebrocortical neurons in rats.

Int J Dev Neurosci. 2010 Oct;28(6):491-5.

Resumen
 Solvent abuse during pregnancy may cause “fetal solvent syndrome”, which is characterized by mild brain atrophy and associated with behavioral, cognitive, and emotional abnormalities. The present study investigated whether solvent inhalation during the preweaning period (P2-P21) alters the morphological maturation of frontal, parietal, and occipital cortical neurons. Twelve hours after delivery (postnatal day 0, P0), litters were cross-fostered, culled to 8 pups/dam and housed together with a dam in standard laboratory cages. Litters were randomly assigned to the “air-only” group (n=64, 8 litters) and to the “solvent-sniffer” group (n=72, 9 litters). During P2-P21, each animal was exposed daily to either organic solvent vapors (75% toluene and 18% n-hexane, a solvent mixture commonly found in glues and adhesives) or clean air. To determine the impact of early solvent inhalation on cortical neuronal differentiation, brains were stained using the Golgi-Cox-Sholl procedure to quantitatively assess neocortical pyramidal cell dendrogenesis. Preweaning, solvent-exposed animals displayed dramatic impairments in dendritic growth as well as significant reductions in brain weight and size.

 

Pascual R, Pilar Zamora-León S, Pérez N, Rojas T, Rojo A, José Salinas M, Reyes A, Bustamante C.
Melatonin ameliorates neocortical neuronal dendritic impairment induced by toluene inhalation in the rat.

Exp Toxicol Pathol. 2011 Jul;63(5):467-71.

Resumen
 The present study investigated the effects of toluene inhalation and the restorative effects of melatonin on branching and basal dendritic outgrowth of superficial pyramidal neurons in rat’s frontal, parietal, and occipital cortices. At postnatal day 21 (P21), Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomly assigned to either an air-only group or a toluene group. From P22 to P32 the animals were exposed to either clean air or toluene vapors (5000-6000 ppm) for 10 min/day. This strategy simulated common toluene abuse in humans, which consists of 15-20 rapid inhalations of highly concentrated solvent. Once the inhalation period was over (P32), toluene exposed animals were randomly reassigned to one of following experimental groups: (i) air-control/saline; (ii) toluene/saline; (iii) toluene/melatonin 0.5mg/kg; (iv) toluene/melatonin 1.0mg/kg; (v) toluene/melatonin 5.0mg/kg; and (vi) toluene/melatonin 10mg/kg. Seven days after the last inhalation (P39), all the animals were sacrificed under deep anesthesia; brains were dissected out and stained according to the Golgi-Cox-Sholl procedure. Layer II/III pyramidal neurons were morphologically analyzed by measuring their basilar dendritic length and the number of branches. The results obtained revealed that (i) toluene inhalation significantly reduced dendritic outgrowth and branching in all cortical areas studied, and (ii) intraperitoneal administration of melatonin (0.5-10mg/kg) was able to restore the dendritic impairment induced by toluene exposure.

 

 

  

 

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Kinesiología PUCV - 2017